I did the opening lecture last week at Freedom Week at Sidney Sussex College in Cambridge. My theme was “Flux vs. Stase,” and I compared the views of Parmenides and Heraclitus, two of the pre-democratic philosophers. Parmenides felt that reality did not change; Only our senses give the appearance of change. Heraclitus, meanwhile, said that everything is constantly changing and that “we are entering the same river and not entering the same river” because new waters are still flowing above us. As is known obscurely, by Plato of inconsistency and accused by Aristotle of denying the law of non-opposition, Heraclitus writes in an aphorist style. His seemingly paradoxical assertions give every interpreter a hard time. Nevertheless, it raises important questions about the knowledge and nature of the world. The opening of Heraclitus` book refers to a “logo that holds forever.” [3] There is disagreement about what Heraklit meant exactly by logos, but it is clear from DK22B1/LM9D1, D110 and R86 and DKB2/LM9D2, as well as DKB50/LMD46 and other fragments that it refers to as an objective principle of law that governs the cosmos and which is difficult for humans (but) difficult. There is only one order that guides everything (“all things are a” DKB50/LMD46); this order is divine and is sometimes bound by men to the traditional gods (it is “both eager and eager to be called zeus” DKB32/LMD45). Just as Zeus, in the traditional vision, commands all of Olympus with a thunderbolt, this one ordered system also controls and controls the entire cosmos, but from within.

The sign of the immutable order of the eternal system is fire – just as fire constantly changes and is always the same, contain logos that are themselves permanent, the immutable bill that explains the changes and transformations of the cosmos. The goddess does not provide the Kouros with a list of true phrases that a body of knowledge that it can acquire, and false, which should be avoided. On the contrary, the goddess unleashes herself by inserting how to evaluate the assertions about what is, the kouros` own cognitive powers, to know everything, by testing, evaluating or rejecting assertions about the ultimate nature of things – because that alone can be known. For Parmenides, the characteristic of what is known is that it is something that really is, without a defect of what is not. That is why for him, it is not only what is, but must be and cannot be. He represents him in the key passages of DKB2 and B3/LM19D6:[5] As Socrates Pythagoras himself did not write anything, but had a great influence on those who followed him. He had a reputation for great learning and wisdom (see Empedocles DKD31B129/LM22. D38, R43), although it was treated satirically by the two xenophanes (DK21B7/LM8. D64) and Heraclitus (DK22B40/LM9D20, DKB129/LMD26).